Cairo - Seven people were killed and more than 260 wounded when supporters of Mohammed Morsi clashed with the deposed president's opponents and security forces through the night as violence returned to Egypt's streets.
Two people were killed at a bridge in central Cairo where police and anti-Morsi locals clashed with some of his supporters who were blocking a route across the River Nile. Another five were killed in the Cairo district of Giza, said the head of emergency services, Mohamed Sultan.
The street battles, which raged into the early hours of Tuesday morning, were the bloodiest since more than 50 Morsi supporters were killed a week ago. The violence overshadows attempts by the authorities to press on with a transition to full civilian rule by naming a new cabinet after the army pushed Morsi, an Islamist, out of power on 3 July.
"We were crouched on the ground, we were praying. Suddenly there was shouting. We looked up and the police were on the bridge firing tear gas down on us," said pro-Morsi protester Adel Asman, aged 42, who was coughing, spitting and pouring Pepsi on his eyes to ease the effect of tear gas.
Egyptian security forces arrested more than 400 Morsi supporters in one part of Cairo alone, a security source said on Tuesday.
The 401 arrests were all made in the central Ramses area, where the two people were killed, the official Mena news agency quoted the security source as saying.
By sunrise calm had returned. The unrest is more localised than in the days after Morsi was toppled when 92 people died, but Egyptians still worry about the authorities' ability to restore order nearly two weeks after Morsi's removal.
"I've had enough of this chaos," said Ashraf Mohamed, who watched the clashes from a distance. "Egypt is just rubbish."
At the bridge in the early hours, young men, their mouths covered to protect them from tear gas, threw stones at police and shouted pro-Morsi and anti-military slogans, as well as "Allahu Akbar!" [God is greatest].
Military helicopters hovered overhead and police vans were brought in to quell the trouble, but when that didn't work, dozens of riot police moved in. Medics treated men with deep gashes to their eyes and faces nearby.
Millions of Egyptians rallied for Morsi's resignation on 30 June. The military said it deposed him to fulfil the wish of the people. Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood said it was a coup.
"It's the army against the people, these are our soldiers, we have no weapons," said Alaa el-Din, a 34-year-old computer engineer, clutching a laptop during the melee.
"The army is killing our brothers, you are meant to defend me and you are attacking me. The army turned against the Egyptian people."
Egypt has become increasingly polarised by the crisis, but one thing the two sides share is a deep mistrust of the United States and its perceived role in the unrest.
US Deputy Secretary of State William Burns told reporters in Cairo that Washington had no desire to meddle in Egypt, which it supports with $1.5bn in aid each year, most of which goes to the military.
"Only Egyptians can determine their future," Burns told reporters at the US embassy. "I did not come with American solutions. Nor did I come to lecture anyone. We will not try to impose our model on Egypt."
Washington, never comfortable with the rise of the Islamist Brotherhood, has so far refused to say whether it views Morsi's removal as a coup, which would require it to halt aid.
The Islamist Nour Party and the Tamarud anti-Morsi protest movement both said they turned down invitations to meet Burns.
But a senior State Department official denied Burns had been shunned. "I don't think we're losing influence at all," the US official said, adding that Burns was still in Cairo.
"I don't know what meetings he has, but he has seen a range of people in Cairo in the interim government, in civil society ... so it's hard to say he has been spurned by both sides. I don't accept that is the case."
Army ‘firmness and force’
Tens of thousands of Brotherhood supporters gathered late on Monday at the Rabaa Adawiya mosque in north-eastern Cairo, where they have staged a sit-in vigil for the last three weeks vowing to stay until Morsi is reinstated.
Another large crowd rallied outside Cairo University, and there were protests in the coastal city of Alexandria and the Nile city of Assiut. There also were minor clashes in Giza, home of the pyramids, just outside Cairo.
The army warned demonstrators that it would respond with "the utmost severity and firmness and force" if they approached military bases or "vital state institutes".
At least 92 people were killed in the days after Morsi was toppled, more than half of them shot by troops outside the Republican Guard compound near the Rabaa mosque on 8 July. Protests since then had been tense but peaceful.
The political turmoil and unrest in major cities has also fuelled violence in Egypt's lawless North Sinai province bordering Israel and the Palestinian Gaza Strip.
Attacks in the area have killed 13 people, mainly police, since 3 July. In the latest, suspected Islamist militants fired grenades at a bus carrying workers from a factory in the Sinai city of El Arish on Monday, killing three and wounding 17.
US urges restraint
Morsi is being held incommunicado at an undisclosed location. He has not been charged with a crime but the authorities say they are investigating him over complaints of inciting violence, spying and wrecking the economy. Scores of Morsi supporters were rounded up after violence last week.
Many of the top Brotherhood figures have been charged with inciting violence, but have not been arrested and are still at large. The public prosecutors' office announced new charges against seven Brotherhood and Islamist leaders on Monday.
Burns had earlier called for restraint on both sides.
"If representatives of some of the largest parties in Egypt are detained or excluded, how are dialogue and participation possible?" he asked. He also urged those opposed to Morsi's ousting to participate in the political process peacefully.
Interim President Adli Mansour and his prime minister Hazem el-Beblawi head a transitional cabinet full of technocrats that is paving the way for parliamentary elections in around six months, in a bid to restore civilian rule.
US-educated economist Ahmed Galal, as finance minister, has the task of rescuing an economy and state finances wrecked by two and a half years of turmoil.
That task became easier, at least in the short term, after Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait - rich Gulf Arab states happy at the downfall of the Brotherhood - promised a total of $12bn in cash, loans and fuel.
The new planning minister, Ashraf al-Arabi, said the Arab money would be enough to sustain Egypt through its transition period and it did not need to restart talks with the International Monetary Fund.
Egypt had sought $4.8bn in IMF aid last year, but months of talks ran aground with the government unable to agree on cuts in unaffordable subsidies for food and fuel. Arabi's comments could worry investors who want the IMF to prod reform.
"I think it's inappropriate to be making such a strong statement, given how new he is to the position," said Angus Blair, president of the Signet Institute, an economic think tank.