New York - Pirate attacks off the coast of Somalia are at
the lowest level since 2006 because of tougher ship security and more Western
naval patrols, while onshore al-Shabaab militants have shifted tactics to
guerrilla warfare, the United Nations said on Wednesday.
Somalia is struggling to rebuild after two decades of civil
war and lawlessness sparked by the overthrow of president Siad Barre in 1991.
In a report to the UN Security Council, Secretary-General
Ban Ki-moon said there were 17 attacks in the first nine months of 2013,
compared to 99 attacks in the same period last year.
"As of 17 October, 2013, two small vessels and 60
seafarers are still held by Somali pirates, most of them ashore, and some of
which the whereabouts are unknown," he said, adding that in 2012 pirates
collected up to $40m in ransom payments.
"The hostages held by Somali pirates endure dire
conditions in captivity and are sometimes tortured and threatened by pirates in
an effort to extract the maximum ransom," Ban said.
According to estimates by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime
and the World Bank, pirates received up to $413m in ransoms between April 2005
and December 2012.
A Somali pirate attack that was ended by US Navy special
forces and not a ransom payment has been turned into a Hollywood film starring
actor Tom Hanks. "Captain Phillips" is based the seizure of a cargo
ship by Somali pirates in 2009.
While the surviving pirate from that attack is serving a
prison sentence in the United States, Ban noted that in general neither the
Somali government nor any local authorities had seriously investigated or
prosecuted pirate leaders, financiers, negotiators or facilitators.
In a separate letter to the Security Council, released on
Wednesday, Ban said he was extremely concerned about Somalia's security
situation and appealed for more international support to avoid gains being
derailed by al-Qaeda-linked al Shabaab.
A joint UN and African Union review of the UN-backed African
peacekeeping mission in Somalia - known as Amisom - found that al Shabaab had
deliberately shifted tactics since May from conventional to guerrilla warfare,
with targets including the government, state bodies and the United Nations.
A suicide bomber killed at least 16 people on Saturday in an
attack on a cafe in a Somali town close to the Ethiopian border frequented by
local and foreign soldiers fighting the al-Qaeda-linked al Shabaab militants.
"In the face of these threats, and in the absence of
enablers and force multipliers that would have permitted a sustained offensive
against al-Shabaab, the Somali National Army and Amisom have now assumed a
largely defensive, static posture," Ban said in the letter to the Security
Ban warned that an al-Shabaab attack on Nairobi's Westgate
shopping centre last month in neighbouring Kenya, which killed at least 67
people, was "worrisome evidence that al-Shabaab is able to plan, rehearse
and implement complex attacks threatening peace and stability in Somalia and
He said there was an urgent need to resume and strengthen
the military campaign against al-Shabaab and backed the joint review's
recommendation that the African force be increased by 2 550 troops to more than
20 000 for up to two years.
"I agree with the findings of the joint mission that it
is not realistic for Amisom to achieve the desired effect of resuming the
military campaign without air assets," Ban said, urging all 193 UN member
states to consider urgently providing helicopters and other assets that had
already been approved by the UN Security Council, but not provided by anyone.