Mogadishu - Somalia's last president before the country erupted into
decades of war made an ominous warning: force him from power, and he
would leave Mogadishu as he found it, with only one road. The rest he
The threat came true: President Siad Barre was ousted
in a 1991 coup, and the once elegant, Italian colonial-era seaside town
was reduced to a wasteland of ruined buildings in years of bloody
battles between rival militias.
Now, 21-years later and eight
months after al-Qaeda-allied insurgents abandoned much of the city
following pressure from the African Union and government forces, the
capital is showing signs of life, with reconstruction underway and land
"Security is still not reliable, but people decided they wanted to return life to normal," trader Ahmed Sheikh Gure said.
"People are rebuilding their destroyed buildings," he added, waving at a newly repaired shop and a busy construction site.
Somalia's war is far from over, a regional offensive did force Islamist
Shabaab insurgents from many strongholds and they abandoned the city in
The scars of war remain clear, with hundreds of
thousands of displaced people living in and around Mogadishu, many in
basic rag-and-plastic shelters, some in the crumbling ruins of roofless
In Bakara market, the capital's war-torn economic heart, the signs of battle are fading slowly.
don't even think that war has ever taken place here," Gure said.
"Thanks to God, because people have the opportunity to rebuild."
for many months was the epicentre of violence in one of the world's
most dangerous capitals, forcing residents and businesses to flee.
an ongoing regional offensive with Ethiopian troops fighting in the
west, AU troops in Mogadishu and Kenyan troops with the AU battling in
the south, many Somalis are returning, bringing back capital earned
"People are rebuilding their homes," government
spokesperson Abdurahman Omar Osman said. "The Somali diaspora are coming
back to help... businesses are re-opening."
Fighting erupted in
Somalia in the late 1980s against Barre's dictatorship, escalating into a
brutal civil war following a 1991 coup, with rival militias, warlords
and Islamist fighters battling ever since for control of the lawless
Less than a year ago, troops and insurgents exchanged
daily mortar fire along frontlines, before Shabaab fighters abandoned
fixed positions and quit the city.
Now it is the construction industry that is busy.
are not jobless these days, construction is booming," painter Adan
Sharif said. "Every four or five weeks we are called for a new
Reconstruction is expensive, but those who can
are repairing their homes, plastering and painting over bullet-pocked
walls, and blocking up holes punched into masonry by rocket-propelled
"Most of the buildings in our neighbourhood were
renovated in recent weeks and are looking good, the area is no longer
looking like the aftermath of war," said Fadumo Moalim, a mother of
eight living in the city's Wardhigley district.
Saleban, a grocer in Mogadishu's Maka Al-Mukarama road, said there was
no way to claim compensation for property damage.
"You cannot imagine how much money we have spent," he said as he watched builders repair his shop.
the ruined buildings is a dramatic Catholic cathedral, built during
Italian colonial days. Its stonework was used as target practice by
Islamist fighters and now houses displaced people fleeing fighting
outside the city.
Mogadishu's rebuilding has also sparked land
speculation, with some fearful that reconstruction efforts may be wasted
if the dark days of war return.
"Buying land is very hard these
days because of the rising prices, security is a major concern...
traders are also thinking about what could happen next, as the war does
not seem to be over yet," said Abdukadir Bashir, a trader.
fighters carry out guerilla attacks including car bombs and mortar
strikes. Analysts warn that the rebels, Somalia's most brutal, remain a
serious threat to international efforts to stabilise the nation.
"What you build today could be easily destroyed tomorrow," Bashir added.
the March re-opening of Mogadishu's ruined national theatre was hailed
as a symbolic step forward for the city, shortly after a suicide bomber
killed six people there, narrowly missing the prime minister.
land prices increase and repairs are made, the cost of living rises too,
a problem for many in this grossly impoverished city.
Many borrow money to pay for renovations, then pay off the loans by renting out rooms to those returning to Mogadishu.
have become very, very expensive - a room that used to cost $10 [a
month] to rent ... today, you will not get a room like that for $40,"
estate agent Mohamed Abdullahi said.
"God willing, I hope people return and rebuild the country."