London - Premier League clubs splashed out almost £130 million on agents' fees last year in a 15 million increase on the previous 12 months.
Liverpool spent the most of any club as they paid out £14.3 million to the sport's middle men over the last two transfer windows, according to figures released by the Premier League on Monday.
The second highest spenders were Manchester United (£13.8m), followed by local rivals Manchester City (£12.4m) with the total reaching £129.86 million for the year ending September 30.
Chelsea and Arsenal both spent £11.9 million, while at the other end of the scale newcomers Watford paid £1.6 million.
Fees are not just paid to agents when transfers happen, but also when players sign new contracts.
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During the period in question, there were 172 inbound transfers and loans in the Premier League, 542 new or improved contracts and 573 outbound transfers and loans - a total of 1,287 transactions, all of which could have led to an agent's fee being paid.
The total spent by the 24 Championship clubs was £26.1 million.
The biggest payers in the second tier were Cardiff (£2.8m), Fulham (£2.7m), QPR and Reading (both £2.3m).
Further down the leagues, third tier Bury and fourth tier Accrington Stanley and Hartlepool did not pay a single penny to agents.