Sydney - Australia's parliament has passed a law allowing it to transfer asylum-seekers arriving by boat to other countries, despite objections that refugees could be held indefinitely in remote camps.
The Senate, parliament's upper house, passed the legislation late on Thursday after months of political wrangling, enabling the government to send boatpeople to Papua New Guinea and tiny Nauru to have their refugee claims processed.
It represents a compromise by the centre-left Labour government, which had previously abandoned offshore processing - Australian policy under former conservative prime minister John Howard.
"I cannot honestly say legislation we consider today sits comfortably in the narrative of the Labour Party, a party based on social justice, compassion and a fair go," Labour Senator Gavin Marshall said.
The government and Tony Abbott's conservative opposition - who have advocated re-opening Nauru and also turning back asylum-seeker boats where possible - voted together to pass the legislation through parliament.
The left-leaning Greens pushed for several amendments to the law to provide greater human rights protections and prevent asylum-seekers from being held offshore for more than 12 months, but they were rejected.
Detention of children
Prime Minister Julia Gillard's administration has struggled to cope with a record influx of boatpeople this year, many originally from Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Iran and Iraq.
It hopes the prospect of years in detention on remote Pacific islands will deter asylum-seekers from attempting the dangerous sea voyage, which has cost hundreds of lives over the past decade.
But Greens Senator Sarah Hanson Young warned that the law allowed for the indefinite detention of asylum-seekers, including children.
"There are 10 unaccompanied minors... who'll be among the first people sent to Nauru," she said.
"Why is the government so reluctant to ensure these minors have access to these appropriate protection and welfare arrangements?"
The government has sent advance parties to check conditions in shuttered camps in Nauru and Papua New Guinea and has admitted that asylum-seekers are likely to be housed in tents until permanent accommodation can be provided.