Kiev - Ukraine's new Western-backed president on Tuesday ordered the creation of humanitarian corridors in the separatist east that could save civilians and advance his plan to end nearly two months of fighting by the end of the week.
Tycoon Petro Poroshenko's initiative meets a major demand put forward by Moscow and helps address growing concern among rights groups about Kiev's use of tanks and air power in heavily populated areas to suppress the pro-Russian insurgency.
But the 48-year-old chocolatier and political veteran stopped well short of accepting the Kremlin's request to allow Russian aid into the eastern rustbelt - a move Kiev fears could be used to help arm the rebels.
"In order to avoid new victims in the zone of the anti-terrorist operation, the president has ordered the responsible ministers to bring about all necessary conditions for civilians who want to leave," Poroshenko's office said in a statement.
The new leader also told his government to provide transportation as well as food and medical supplies for local officials to be able to handle the expected inflow of displaced persons into other parts of Ukraine.
On Sunday Poroshenko unveiled plans to end by the close of his first week in office a rebellion that has killed more than 200 people and shaken the very foundation of the splintered ex-Soviet state.
The peace push came after the first of what are expected to be almost daily meetings with Moscow's ambassador to Kiev and a representative from the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe - a Vienna-based body that was first tasked with securing peace during the Cold War.
Poroshenko's high-stakes negotiations with the Kremlin include efforts to avert a Russian gas cut that would also impact Europe and plunge his economically-devastated country into even deeper recession.
A crunch round of EU-mediated gas talks concluded in Brussels on Monday without an agreement but a decision for the sides to meet again by Wednesday after further consultations back home.
"All points of the deal were negotiated, and discussions will resume," EU Energy Commissioner Guenther Oettinger said.
But Ukraine's Energy Minister Yuriy Prodan conceded that little progress was made on a dispute over prices and billions of dollars in contested debts sought by Moscow.
"We remained at the level of the [last round] of negotiations," Prodan said after the talks.
Justified use of force
The government forces' campaign - dubbed an "anti-terrorist operation" by Kiev and a "punitive operation" by Moscow - has intensified since Poroshenko's 25 May election as the fifth post-Soviet president of Ukraine.
The fighting has engulfed two-economically vital regions that are home to seven million people and have extensive trade and cultural ties to Russia.
The battles are now primarily being waged along Ukraine's border with Russia and Slavyansk - a city of 120 000 that was the first of a dozen to fall under rebel command in early April.
A military spokesperson said two Ukrainian soldiers were wounded in fighting around Slavyansk overnight.
"The gunmen are continuing to try to break out of their encirclement," Vladyslav Seleznyov said in a statement.
But human rights groups question whether Ukraine's growing reliance on artillery fire in Slavyansk and neighbouring towns - an offensive backed by Kiev's US and EU allies - is entirely justified.
"Criminal conduct by the insurgents does not relieve the Ukrainian forces of their obligations to act in accordance with international law in the conduct of their law enforcement and military operations," Human Rights Watch said in a letter addressed to Poroshenko.
Elusive gas deal
The gas talks in Brussels came on the eve of a Russian deadline for Ukraine to cover a debt of nearly $4.4bn or have its shipments end on Wednesday.
Russia has not yet publically indicated whether it was ready to push back that deadline in an effort to let the negotiations take their course.
Ukraine has refused to pay the bills in protest at Russia's decision to nearly double its rates in the wake of the February ousting of Kiev's Kremlin-backed president.
About 15% of Europe's gas from Russia transits through Ukraine - dependence that EU nations have been trying to limit following similar disruptions in 2006 and 2009.
Analysts had expected the two sides to agree to a new price of around $360 per thousand cubic metres of gas - a sum about halfway between Russia's old rate and the one set after the rise to power of the new pro-Western authorities.
But they said Ukraine appeared to be taking a hard-line position by demanding the same rate Russia awarded the ousted authorities for their decision to ditch an historic EU trade agreement.
"Ukraine's lack of a constructive position is seriously impeding the talks," Moscow's Alfa Bank said in a morning research note.
"Ukraine continues to insist on a gas price of $268 per thousand cubic metre, which EU authorities view as a non-market price."